Lista de leitura, Fev/17

The inclusion of an SDG target for reaching universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, affirms the power of health to build fair, stable, and cohesive societies while also contributing to poverty alleviation. The target provides a unifying platform for moving towards all other health targets through the delivery of integrated, people-centred services that span the life course, bring prevention to the fore and protect against financial hardship. Universal health coverage is the ultimate expression of fairness and one of the most powerful social equalizers among all policy options.

We argue that embedding of research in real world policy, practice and implementation is needed to strengthen health systems worldwide. Embedded research conducted in partnership with policymakers and implementers, integrated in different health system settings and that takes into account context-specific factors can ensure greater relevance in policy priority-setting and decision-making.

By September 2015, 4917 physicians had been added to the 16 524 physicians already in place in municipalities with remote and deprived populations. The number of municipalities with ≥1.0 physician per 1000 inhabitants doubled from 163 in 2013 to 348 in 2015. Primary care coverage in enrolled municipalities (based on 3000 inhabitants per primary care team) increased from 77.9% in 2012 to 86.3% in 2015. Avoidable hospitalizations in enrolled municipalities decreased from 44.9% in 2012 to 41.2% in 2015, but remained unchanged in control municipalities. We also documented higher infrastructure investments in enrolled municipalities and an increase in the number of medical school places over the study period.

In line with the rise in the use of AI in pharmaceutical sciences, and other industries, the Japanese government have this year announced that they are considering establishing a new protection system for intellectual property created by a nonhuman, for example, AI, which was proposed in the ‘Intellectual Property Promotion Plan 2016’ and approved at a meeting held at the Japanese Intellectual Property Strategy Headquarters on 9 May 2016 [6,7]. The plan states that, “moving forward, the government will continue to consider the extent of intellectual property rights and for whom they will be granted, in relation to creative works produced by artificial intelligence.” Other governments in the world are also considering how to deal with such intellectual property.

Among the numerous studies in the scientific literature, the details of how to process and evaluate internet traces are varied and scattered, as are experimental contexts. Further, we suspect many additional studies yielded negative results and were not published. That is, measuring disease using internet data works some of the time, but not always. We ask: when does it work and how does it work?


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